5种快乐食物

Elizabeth Somer, RD11/22/16

 

难道您不希望有一种快乐丸,在您感觉不好时能够提神,或者在您要对爱人恶语相向时能温暖您的心房吗?好吧,这不是药丸,它和厨房一样方便,能够达到理想的效果。因为吃(或不吃)的东西与您的感觉密切相关。某些食物和营养素能够调整脑化学,帮助您保持快乐、精力充沛,甚至平静。下面是五种必要快乐食物。  

快乐食物1:100%全麦面包

我们忧郁时理所当然地渴望碳水化合物,因为正是这些食物能提高使人感觉良好的脑化学物质(血清素)水平。全麦面包远远优于白面包,因为它还能稳定血糖水平,而精制谷物会使血糖水平大幅波动,让您神经紧张、脾气暴躁、饥肠辘辘。燕麦片也不错,因为它含有一种名为β-葡聚糖的纤维,能使血糖保持在健康范围内。以下全碳水化合物零食可提高血清素水平:

· 半个100%全麦英式松饼配果酱

· 半个烤肉桂全麦圈饼,上面洒满蜂蜜

· 一小碗燕麦片,淋上蔓越莓干和1汤匙红糖

快乐食物2:少量甜点

紧张时,糖能使我们冷静。旧金山加利福尼亚大学(University of California)的研究发现,压力过大的大鼠(这是了解人体应激反应的良好模型)大口吃糖时,会比吃常规食物的大鼠更平静。(1)

在您冲向有许可证的自动贩卖机大吃大喝之前,别忘了,适量有益,而不是越多越好。少量糖可能会平复紧张的神经,而过多的糖则会对血糖水平造成严重破坏,并会让您长期陷入忧郁中。事实上,有些抑郁症患者在减少糖摄入量后,抑郁和疲劳症状会得到缓解。(2)  这里的诀窍就是,少量糖可以平复神经、改善心情,而过多的糖则会加重抑郁症状,例如: 

· 1小片天使雪白蛋糕,配½杯新鲜草莓

· 水果和巧克力火锅:在¼杯无脂巧克力浆中浸入新鲜水果片(巧克力含有脑化学物质,如苯乙胺或PEA和花生四烯酸乙醇胺,让您有“坠入爱河”的感觉)。

· 2/3杯浆果冰沙,配1杯覆盆子

快乐食物3:鲑鱼

食用大量欧米茄-3脂肪DHA的人不易发生情感低落、攻击性行为和敌对情绪。(20-25) 关于欧米茄-3改善情绪障碍的证据非常多,美国精神病学协会(American Psychiatric Association)甚至发表声明称,欧米茄-3是抑郁症患者的重要营养素之一。

DHA对情绪为什么如此重要?这种健康脂肪在大脑中发挥主要作用。它有助于形成健康的细胞膜,使得营养素顺利运输至脑细胞,降低炎症,提高血清素水平,以及更多益处。这可能是每周饮食中富含DHA的人抑郁症发病率较低的原因所在,甚至有证据表明他们的记忆力更佳,学习成绩更好。争取每周至少进食两份油性鱼类,如鲑鱼、鲱鱼、鲭鱼或沙丁鱼,或者欧米茄-3 DHA强化食物。(3-9) 

快乐食物4:菠菜

忘记吃日常蔬菜可能导致叶酸(人体产生血清素所必需的一种B族维生素)水平降低。叶酸摄入不足与抑郁、疲劳、记忆力差甚至更严重的精神问题(如精神分裂症)的风险增加有关。争取每天通过补充剂摄入400微克叶酸,或1 ½杯炒菠菜中的叶酸含量。(10-16) 尝试:

· 餐盘里堆放嫩菠菜,在上面撒上烤鲑鱼片

· 在一锅自制蔬菜汤中加入一包10盎司的冷冻碎菠菜

· 将菠菜叶分层做成三明治、卷饼或墨西哥卷饼

· 把蒸的碎菠菜搅入土豆泥

快乐食物5:黑豆

豆类(如黑豆)是大自然最好的铁来源之一。作为血液中血红蛋白的成分,铁是人体内关键的氧载体。铁水平下降时,组织缺氧,导致疲劳、注意力下降和睡眠紊乱。缺铁是第一大营养素缺乏症,儿童、青春期女孩和育龄女性风险最高。(17-19)

豆子也有助于保持情绪平稳。它们几乎不含脂肪,但富含蛋白质、水和纤维,是饱腹感和极少量卡路里的神奇组合。它们的血糖指数也非常低,因此有助于调节血糖以及食欲。

在饮食中添加黑豆: 

· 在铁锅中热煮豆子(铁从锅中浸到豆子中,在膳食中加入额外的铁),然后和菠菜、烤红辣椒、细辛花番薯一起卷入玉米粉圆饼

· 将豆子与洋葱、大蒜和孜然混合,然后堆在熟糙米上。搭配一杯橙汁(橙汁中的维生素C可促进膳食中的铁吸收)食用

· 将黑豆撒入拌好的沙拉中,搭配火鸡三明治食用(火鸡中的铁称为“血红素”铁,可促进豆中“非血红素”铁的吸收)

参考文献

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