5个预防衰老的饮食诀窍,增强生命力,延年益寿

Elizabeth Somer, RD11/22/16

想让晚年生活充满活力?想永葆青春、感觉良好、终生思路清晰?好消息。我们有充分理由相信,可以将衰老过程延缓数十年,并在此期间保持良好的面貌、思维和感觉。

现在已经证实,大多数与衰老有关的疾病和功能障碍都源于生活方式。(40,44)简言之,岁月并不是导致衰退的唯一因素,我们选择如何生活也很重要。如果我们愿意在饮食以及营养补充和生活方式方面做出改变,就可以最大限度地延长健康的中年生活时间,推迟甚至避免衰弱的老年生活。(1,11,14,15,24)

衰老是一个连续的过程,而非突发事件。您不会在某一天早上醒来突然发现自己老了。从心脏病到皮肤衰老等与老年人相关的相同营养问题,自中年时期就已经开始。与饮食有关的健康问题只会随着年龄增加。例如,维生素D和B12是人体随年龄增长而需要补充的营养素。皮肤暴露在阳光下时,人体会产生维生素D,但随着年龄增长,这种能力会逐渐消失。(51,52)这意味着,随着年龄增长,维生素D的食物和补充来源变得越来越重要。(2)此外,随着年龄增长,维生素B12的需求也日益增加,而许多老年人缺乏这种维生素。(23,33)。再比如,晚年健康需要增加的营养素还包括钙和维生素B6。(50,53)

越早开始预防衰老的饮食越好,但无论何时开始都不晚。计划很简单,只需谨记五个简单的诀窍:

预防衰老诀窍1:饮食富含水果蔬菜

您能采取的减缓、停止、甚至扭转衰老过程的最重要的饮食习惯,是增加抗氧化和富含纤维食物的摄入量,特别是各色水果和蔬菜的摄入量。(5,6,10,34,37)从心脏病到白内障和皱纹等所有与年龄相关的疾病,其一个根本原因是名为氧化剂或自由基的氧碎片。如果不加抑制,这些氧化剂会损伤细胞和组织,并会随年龄而加剧。(49)幸运的是,人体有一种名为抗氧化剂的抗自由基系统,它能使具有破坏力的氧化剂失活并排出体外。(45,46)

其中许多抗氧化剂来自我们的饮食。例如,维生素C有助于产生正常胶原蛋白,即皮肤底层支撑结构。日光照射也会消耗皮肤中的维生素E,而增加这种抗氧化剂的摄入量有助于保护细胞免受氧化应激。(38)研究表明,维生素E还可以减少胶原酶产量,避免胶原蛋白遭分解,导致皮肤下垂和皱纹,从而减缓皮肤细胞衰老。(47)

在饮食中添加深色水果蔬菜,增加抗氧化剂储备。深绿叶菜尤其富含抗氧化剂,也是叶酸和维生素K的良好来源,有利于脑健康。(30)饮食中富含水果蔬菜,可以让您的面貌和心态更显年轻,也让您能更轻松地控制腰围!(48,54)

预防衰老诀窍2:专注于健康脂肪

有些脂肪(饱和脂肪和反式脂肪)似乎会加速衰老过程。应该减少这些食物(如红肉、高脂肪乳制品和氢化植物油制品)的摄入。(3,13,22,35)而使用健康脂肪(如特级初榨橄榄油中的单不饱和脂肪和鱼中的欧米茄-3脂肪)代替之。欧米茄-3脂肪DHA对心脏健康和保持正常视力尤为重要。(12,16)它可能还有助于保持思维敏捷。(27,28,29,32,33)每周饮食中含有两份或以上脂质鱼(如鲑鱼),或者服用DHA补充剂。 

预防衰老诀窍3:用真正的食物保持身材苗条

摆脱腰间赘肉和戒烟一样,是将健康的中年时期延至70岁及以上的主要方法之一。遵循一个简单的规则,就可以做到减肥:减少加工食品和快餐,专注于真正的食物。加工食品不仅会使人发胖,而且会加速衰老过程。此外,当饮食以原始形态的食物(例如,燕麦片而非格兰诺拉麦片、土豆而非法式炸薯条、100%全麦面包而非白面包、玉米棒而非玉米片)为基础,就会减少热量摄入。(7,8,36,39,42,43)

预防衰老诀窍4:适当补充营养素

始终先通过食物满足营养需求。但在饮食不够完美的日子里,应该通过一两种补充剂填补营养缺口。(21,41)诀窍是选择适当的补充剂。就质量而言,考虑以下事项:

第1步:选择范围广泛的多种维生素和矿物质补充剂。考虑包含维生素A、D、E、K、所有B族维生素(维生素B1、B2、B6、B12、烟酸和叶酸)和微量矿物质(铬、铜、铁、锰、硒和锌)的补充剂。

第2步:阅读标签上“每日营养摄入量”一列中的内容。考虑含多种维生素的补充剂,其可提供所有营养素每日营养摄入量的100%左右,但不超过300%。您需要“均衡”的补充剂,而不是含有一种营养素2%、一种营养素50%以及一种营养素600%的补充剂。维生素D是一个例外,它的摄入量可以超过每日营养摄入量。

第3步:在美国,考虑USP标志。美国药典(USP)是非政府标准制定机构。该质量标志意味着补充剂会在消化道内溶解,由纯粹的配料制成,营养素含量与标签说明一致。 

第4步:完善您的补充剂。没有哪种日服一粒的多种维生素补充剂含有足够的钙和镁。需要考虑的其他补充剂包括有益视力的叶黄素和玉米黄素,有益心脏、视力和头脑的欧米茄-3 DHA。(17,18,19,20)

预防衰老诀窍5:运动!

无可否认,必须锻炼。您需要做日常有氧活动(如健步走、慢跑、游泳或骑自行车)以燃烧脂肪并保持心脏和头脑状态良好,同时每周至少要做两次强化活动(举重)以保持肌肉现状,甚至只需在厨房里举举牛奶罐。(4,9,25,26,31)

最令人欣喜的是,人体是一个整体。保护心脏的饮食建议对大脑健康同样有益,并能令人容光焕发。务必要吃得好!

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