保护眼睛健康的5大物质:注册营养师Elizabeth Somer专访

Elizabeth Somer, M.A., R.D.11/13/17

本文看点:FloraGLO® Lutein

清晨的阳光照在春天的花朵上。看着孩子慢慢长大。所爱的人快乐时的面部表情。眼睛让我们每天都见证奇迹,同时也是通往神奇世界的窗口。然而,我们总是把视觉看作是理所当然的,或者认为视力问题随着年龄增长难以避免。事实并非如此。古代的采猎者群体已经表现出我们现在称为“文明病”的轻微迹象,包括心脏病、糖尿病和视力丧失。(1)最近的研究表明,为帮助维持我们终身的视力,我们有很多可做的事。(2-5)

我们采访了美国著名的注册营养师Elizabeth Somer,了解膳食对眼睛健康有何影响。

品质生活:我们怎样全年保护眼睛?

ES:年龄是眼睛问题的主要风险因素,部分可能由于数十年的紫外线照射、吸烟和/或膳食中富含抗氧化物质的食物不足。这些因素可能增加晶状体的氧化性损伤。(6)

无论何时,在户外佩戴可以阻断紫外线A和紫外线B的太阳镜,戴大遮阳帽,避免吸烟,并摄入健康的膳食。这些选择可以显著降低这一损伤。此外,尽早发现视力问题的迹象。在20岁到30岁之间让眼科医生为您进行至少一次散瞳后的检查,在30岁到40岁之间进行两次检查,在40岁到64岁之间每2到4年进行一次检查,此后每1到2年进行一次检查。

品质生活:为什么胡萝卜对眼睛健康有益?

ES:胡萝卜是β-胡萝卜素的来源,β-胡萝卜素在人体内转化为维生素A。维生素A是合成眼睛视网膜中一种称为视紫质的化合物的材料,而视紫红质有助于维持我们的夜间视力。维生素A缺乏可导致“夜盲症”。 

所有深橙色或深绿色水果和蔬菜,从杏到菠菜,都能提供β-胡萝卜素,但为什么唯有胡萝卜这么有名?这件事的来龙去脉可能是这样的:二战期间,为保护新雷达技术机密,英国传播了一个谣言,他们的飞行员夜间空袭成功是因为富含胡萝卜的膳食改善了夜间视力。(7)海报甚至夸大了食用胡萝卜的益处,宣传食用者的视力在全城停电期间不受影响。(7)德国军队是否相信这一谣言不得而知,但这个传说仍然流传至今。

品质生活:还有哪些营养物质支持眼睛健康?

ES:膳食在人生的不同阶段对总体眼睛健康都起着重要作用。年龄相关眼科疾病研究(AREDS)是由美国国家眼科研究所发起的一项长期调查。目前已鉴别出维持视网膜和视力功能的营养物质。有5种营养物质对眼睛健康起主要作用:欧米茄-3 EPA和DHA、叶黄素和玉米黄质以及抗氧化剂维生素E。(8-10)

保护眼睛健康的5大物质

  • 欧米茄-3脂肪EPADHA在眼内构建健康的细胞。研究表明,这些脂肪可帮助维持视网膜和视力功能。(11-15)这些健康的脂肪还可帮助减缓水分蒸发,这对避免眼痒或眼涩极为重要。(11,16,17)
  • 叶黄素玉米黄质是可支持眼组织的抗氧化剂。它们也还可帮助在眼组织中形成黄斑色素,过滤可能损伤黄斑的蓝光。(18-23)
  • 维生素E是一种强效抗氧化剂,可保护眼内细胞膜免受由紫外线、吸烟和其他污染物造成的氧化损伤。越来越多的研究表明,维生素E有助于降低白内障和黄斑变性的风险。(6,24-27)

品质生活:应该吃哪些食物来保护眼睛?

ES:我们的身体是一个巨大的容器。因此不难理解,西方膳食中的典型食物,例如红肉,可能损伤心脏和大脑,也可能损伤眼睛。反之,对心脏和大脑有益的食物,也会在整个生命过程中维持视力。(28-30)

以下是含有5大物质的最佳护眼食物:

  • 脂肪鱼,例如三文鱼、鲭鱼、鲱鱼、沙丁鱼和凤尾鱼,是欧米茄-3脂肪EPA和DHA的最佳来源。美国心脏协会建议每周食用至少两份,这对保护眼睛健康也是良好的开始。
  • 叶黄素和玉米黄质的最佳膳食来源是绿叶蔬菜,例如菠菜、甜菜、羽衣甘蓝和无头甘蓝。每天食用至少一杯煮熟的绿叶蔬菜,有助于保持眼睛健康。(31-34)
  • 富含维生素E的食物包括坚果、鳄梨和油,例如小麦胚芽油、橄榄油和红花油。

品质生活:如果不经常吃这些食物,还能从哪些渠道获取这些营养物质?

ES:眼睛需要经常补充这些营养物质。如果无法从食物中有效补充,则应该考虑服用补剂。选择提供10毫克叶黄素、2毫克玉米黄质、100IU至400IU维生素E以及1000毫克含EPA和DHA的鱼油的补剂。(35-37)一些补剂根据AREDS 2研究制定配方,包括含有FloraGLO®叶黄素的补剂。查看标签上对研究的引用,以确保补剂配方良好。

 

References

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